Maritime Commission Design C2-S
Descriptions for MC-72 to 74 and 99 to 101
A minor sensation in New York shipping circles was occasioned by the arrival on March 11 of the smartly styled S. S. Robin Lockslcy, first of six new vessels for the Seas Shipping Company's Robin Line service from New York to Africa. Designed by George C. Sharp, naval architect, New York, she was built at the Sparrows Point Plant of the Shipbuilding Division of the Bethlehem Steel Company at a contract price of $2,250,000. Mr. Sharp is well known in the shipbuilding industry for his progressive approach to the problems of ship design, particularly with regard to the integration of structural and service systems, the arrangement and decoration of passenger accommodations, and the various phases of shipboard fire control. The Robin Lockslcy follows the Export Line "Aces" and the new Panama Line vessels in epitomizing the exacting standards which Mr. Sharp has set for designs prepared in his office. Noteworthy among her many distinctive features are the accommodations for twelve passengers, which rival in design and comfort those to be found on the most modern passenger vessels. The interior styling was the work of Mr. Sharp's own organization and gives tangible evidence of the economy and effectiveness which is to be attained through this manner of handling. Despite the luxury-liner tone of the passenger accommodations, however, the Robin Lockslcy is definitely not a ''glamour" ship. Her principal function is the transportation of cargo between New York, Baltimore and eleven ports of call in South and East Africa, and she has been designed to perform this function as economically and efficiently as possible. The large holds, completely clear of structural obstructions, are served by the most modern cargo handling gear obtainable, and are equipped throughout with the Cargocaire system of cargo dehumidification. At a service speed of 16 knots, her run to Africa should prove a real attraction to travelers and shippers alike.
The Service and the Ships
The design of the new Robin Line ships was prepared as a solution to the owner's problem of maintaining, with new ships, and on a sound economic basis, a schedule of monthly sailings in their freight service between the United States and Africa. This service covers a round trip distance of 20,300 nautical miles, and includes a total of eleven ports of call in Africa as well as a stop at Trinidad, on the homeward voyage, for fuel oil. The naval architect's studies indicated that this problem would be solved most satisfactorily with three new ships, capable of a sustained sea speed of 16 knots, with the general characteristics tabulated on this page. When the schedule was altered to provide fortnightly sailings, the number of ships required was increased to six. A contract was subsequently negotiated between the Seas Shipping Company, the Maritime Commission, and the Bethlehem Steel Company for the construction of the six vessels at Bethlehem's Sparrows Point Plant, at a contract price of $2,250,000 for each of the first three vessels and $2,140,000 for each of the second three. The keel of the Robin Locksley was laid on February 23, 1940. The ship was launched on October 5, 1940, and delivered on March 6, 1941. The other five ships will be completed at approximately monthly intervals. The new vessels are modern general cargo carriers with spacious and attractive accommodations for twelve passengers. They have been designed without camber or sheer and are characterized by a long raised forecastle, a large but compact midship superstructure topped by a well proportioned oval stack, and a shelter deck extending aft unbroken to a short poop which rises only to bulwark height and so does not break the line of sheer. These features, combined with a modern and original color treatment, give the ships a distinctive, racy appearance which is not ordinarily found in vessels of this class. The stack is painted a light gray, with a feathered red, white and blue insignia, the superstructure white, the hull gray and the boot topping green, and an added dash of color is introduced in the unique winged shell insignia just forward of the break in the forecastle. There are three hatches with one mast and a king post forward of the superstructure, and two hatches and one mast aft, with four king posts mounted near the corners of the superstructure. Cargo is handled by means of sixteen 5-ton booms and sixteen electric winches, hatches Nos. 2, 3 and 4 being double ganged. In addition, a 30-ton boom is provided at hatch No. 3 and a 10-ton boom at hatch No. 5. Through careful integration of the ship's structural features, the cargo spaces have been rendered remarkably clear of structural obstructions, and it is expected that loading and unloading will be accomplished in a minimum of time. The vessels have the American Bureau of Shipping's classification + Al E + AMS + RMC, and are subdivided by seven transverse watertight bulkheads to achieve a one-compartment flooding standard. Investigation of transverse stability with one compartment flooded indicates that ample metacentric heights can be maintained in service. The main propulsion unit is a cross-compound, double reduction geared turbine, producing a normal shaft horsepower of 6300 at 85 revolutions per minute.
The Trial Trip
The trials of the Robin Locksley were conducted under observation of the Maritime Commission Trial Board on February 24, 1941, in Chesapeake Bay. The ship was in light condition with all tanks full. One of the sister ships will subsequently undergo more exhaustive trials on the Rockland course. During the two-hour maximum power test, four runs were made over the mile course off Kent Island. The average speed for these four runs was 18.17 knots. The fuel consumption at normal power during the four-hour endurance run was 0.59 pound per shaft horsepower per hour for all purposes, based on preliminary calculations.
The new vessels have six decks above the inner bottom, the bridge, boat, cabin, shelter, second and third decks. Two of these, the shelter and second decks, are continuous from the stem to the aft peak bulkhead, where they break up to a higher level and are continued to the stern. The third deck extends from the forepeak bulkhead to the machinery space, where it is omitted, and is continued aft of the machinery space to the bulkhead at the aft end of No. 4 hold. Flats at two different levels, both port and starboard, are arranged in the machinery space to accommodate auxiliary machinery, engineers' workshop, turbo-generators, engineers' stores and refrigerating machinery. All holds and all third deck 'tween deck spaces are arranged for carrying cargo, with a Cargocaire machinery room just forward of the machinery space on the third deck, and the steering gear, engineers' stores and lamp room on the steering flat just above the third deck level. The second deck is almost entirely given over to carrying cargo, with the exceptions of the ship's storerooms forward, between and aft of the engine and boiler casings, and of spaces on the raised portion of this deck aft arranged as crew and passengers' baggage rooms, paint room, carpenter shop, boatswain's stores, engineers' stores and capstan machinery room The forecastle on over to cargo, with a large boatswain's store forward, and a bullion room and fan and resistor rooms at the forecastle and bulkhead. Amidships, four compartments, arranged for carrying refrigerated cargo, are located port and starboard. Two deck houses containing special cargo lockers and fan and resistor rooms are located on the shelter deck between each pair of large hatches. The tops of these houses form raised cargo winch platforms. The accommodations for petty officers and crew, as well the shelter deck is largely given as the officers' and crew's messrooms, galley, officers' and crew's pantries, hospital, laundry and ship's office, are also located on the shelter deck, in the midship superstructure, which is recessed on this deck to permit fore and aft outside passages port and starboard. The cabin deck is taken up entirely with passengers' and officers' accommodations, and the boat deck house contains the captain's quarters, radio room and radio operator's quarters, steward's room, gyro-compass room and a large fan room. The open deck space on each side and aft of this house affords promenade and lounging space for the passengers and officers, and also accommodates the two large lifeboats. The bridge wings forward have been carried inboard and aft at quite an angle, giving a considerable sheltered area on each side of the ship. These sheltered areas are screened from the weather by glass windows forward. The bridge deck house is arranged with the wheel house forward, followed by the chart room and pilot's room. The emergency generator room occupies the lower part of the large stack aft of the uptakes, from which it is separated by an insulated bulkhead. The top of the bridge deck house is railed in and fitted up with a standard compass and a flag locker. The upper part of the large stack not only contains the boiler uptakes, but also the induced draft fans and the battery room.
The accommodations for the passengers and crew have been very carefully worked out to provide the utmost in comfort and convenience for all persons on board. Generous access has been provided throughout, with one enclosed stairway running from the second deck to the boat deck, and a second enclosed stairway running from the shelter deck to the bridge deck. An additional stairway runs between the cabin and boat decks. The stairways are arranged on each side of the engine and boiler casings, convenient to all quarters and to the various service spaces. Bathrooms and toilets are grouped together wherever possible to provide economy in plumbing through simplification of plumbing lines. All rooms are provided with wash basins except where they are connected to private baths. Ample bathing facilities are provided for all crew ratings, with the captain's and chief engineer's rooms,' as well as all passengers' staterooms, connected to private bathrooms or showers. Incombustible materials are used throughout the accommodations to provide the maximum protection against the spread of fire.
Among the particularly distinctive features of the ship are the unique passenger accommodations. In spaciousness and completeness of appointment, they are the equal of any afloat. The arrangement is compact and symmetrical, giving complete privacy for the passengers, since none of the crew, with the exception of the stewards, have to enter these quarters during the normal operation of the ship. The accommodations consist of two verandas, one port and one starboard, with four staterooms grouped around each, and a high central lounge between, which is furnished to serve also as a dining room. These rooms are arranged according to the well-known Sharp veranda system. This arrangement of a group of four staterooms about a central veranda was originated by Mr. Sharp a number of years ago, to make what are ordinarily called "inside" staterooms more attractive and tenable, to improve cross-ventilation of passenger accommodations, and to provide smaller, semi-private lounges for the occupants of the adjoining rooms. The verandas are separated from the lounge by Her-culite glass screens and frameless Herculite glass doors, allowing an unbroken vista across the entire breadth of the ship. Four large Kearfott frameless windows are fitted on the shell side of each veranda, and these windows, together with glass brick panels above the boat deck in the upper portion of the lounge, give a well lighted, stimulating and delightful suite of rooms, which provide a marked contrast to the low ceilings and general stuffiness usually found on vessels of this type. The twelve passengers are accommodated in eight rooms, each with private bath or shower. The four outboard rooms are double rooms, and the inboard veranda rooms are single. The double rooms have bathrooms fitted with a tub and overhead shower; the single rooms have showers only, enclosed in glass instead of the usual curtain. The bathroom and shower for each pair of rooms, together with an officer's shower and toilet, are arranged to form a block directly over a block of crew showers and toilets on the deck below, thus simplifying the plumbing installation.
Four deck officers and two cadets, together with the chief steward and a steward, are quartered in seven rooms at the forward end of the cabin deck. All men are berthed one in a room with the exception of the two cadets who occupy a room together. Three showers and toilets open on to the thwartships corridor providing access to these rooms. A similar arrangement of quarters is provided at the aft end of the cabin deck for the engineers, where seven rooms accommodate the chief engineer, four assistant engineers and the electrician. The chief engineer is also provided with an office adjacent to his sleeping quarters, and a private shower. The captain's day room and stateroom are located at the forward end of the boat deck house, and the radio operator and a steward are berthed aft on this deck in individual rooms.
The crew is berthed in eleven rooms on the shelter deck with one, two, three and four persons in a room. Seven showers and toilets are provided for the crew in convenient locations. The vessel is manned by a crew of 47 officers and men, tabulated as follows: Deck officers 5, Deck crew 14, Engineer officers 6, Engine room crew 9, Stewards' department 13. With the passenger accommodations, berths are provided for a total of fifty-nine persons on board the ship.
There are five cargo holds besides the four refrigerated cargo spaces on the second deck. All holds are fitted with the Cargocaire system, providing dehumidification of the air in these spaces and preventing cargo damage from moisture. The holds and 'tween deck spaces are completely free of obstructions, with the exception of the large structural columns on the center-line at the hatch ends. A total of 593,655 cubic feet for bale goods or general cargo, and 659,215 cubic feet for grain, is available in the five holds. Other capacities are 3485 cubic feet for special cargo and 11,530 cubic feet for refrigerated cargo, giving a total of 608,670 bale cubic feet. The cargo holds are served by large overhead hatches, as follows: No. 1 hatch, 19 feet 11 inches long by 24 feet thwart-ship. Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 hatches, 37 feet 6 inches long by 24 feet thwartship. The refrigerated cargo spaces are loaded through large insulated doors opening into 'tween deck spaces on the second deck adjacent to Nos. 3 and 4 hatches. No. 1 hatch is fitted with a double-hinged steel hatch cover on the forecastle deck, and Metalumber hatch covers at the deck below. Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 hatches are fitted with Macanking steel rolling hatch covers. The sections of these covers are stowed vertically at one end of each hatch. The lower decks have hatch covers of lumber supported by strongbacks. Trimming hatches are provided at the third deck in Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 holds.
The galley, pantries and other service spaces on the Robin Locksley have been worked out with great care to give maximum efficiency with a minimum of personnel. The galley, main pantry, officers' and crew's pantries, as well as the messrooms, are on the shelter deck. The galley is located almost amidship, in the center of the ship, with the main pantry, crew's pantry and officers' pantry on the port side adjacent to the galley. This arrangement permits service to the officers' messroom forward and the petty officers' and crew's messrooms aft without encroaching on the corridors into which the crew's rooms open. This effectively shuts out kitchen noises from the quarters as there are solid bulkheads around the entire service section with doors located only at the extreme ends on thwartship corridors. Storerooms are located on the second deck immediately below the service spaces, and stores may be brought up by stairway or hoisted directly to the galley by means of a dumbwaiter. The dumbwaiter serves three decks, the second, shelter and cabin decks, and also provides service between the storerooms, galley and service pantry on the cabin deck. The crew's and officers' pantries are arranged to serve as night pantries and are closed off from the main pantry by locked doors after the galley is shut down.
Although the accommodations of the Robin Locksley have been designed for a maximum passenger list of twelve, the arrangement and modern furnishings of the passenger quarters are comparable to those found on the most luxurious passenger liners. No pains have been spared to make the long voyage to South Africa as pleasant and comfortable as possible. Despite the general atmosphere of luxury and comfort which has been achieved, it was possible to keep the cost of this phase of the work within limits which compare favorably with much less distinctive results in ships of the same class. In this connection, it is to be noted that all of the interior styling and decoration for these ships was handled by interior specialists of the naval architect's own organization, although the selection of colors and fabrics was under the personal supervision of Mrs. Arthur Raymond Lewis, Jr., wife of the president of the Seas Shipping Company. The wisdom of keeping the responsibility lor decoration and styling within the naval architect's office is immediately apparent from the pleasing result which has been obtained through integration of the structural background with the general decorative scheme. Complete understanding between those responsible for the structural details on the one hand, and those handling the interior styling on the other, saved much lost motion and unnecessary expense. Several innovations and distinctive features in the interior design deserve special mention. To relieve the oppressive feeling normally experienced in large rooms with low ceilings, the height of the lounge has been increased by raising part of the boat deck overhead, and inserting a glass brick installation in that part of the vertical bulkheads above the regular boat deck level. Direct sunlight is provided to the lounge through the bricks, and a novel decorative effect achieved. This is the first installation of glass bricks in an exterior marine bulkhead, and it required considerable preliminary research by the naval architect and manufacturer before the installation was considered practical and safe. Separating the lounge from the verandas on either side are clear Herculite glass screens with frameless Herculite glass doors. This also is believed to be the first shipboard installation of its kind. The net result is to provide an unobstructed view through the public spaces from one side of the ship to the other, producing a remarkable impression of light, airy spaciousness. Extensive use has been made of the new plastics now available for decorative purposes. Particularly noteworthy are the Lucite lamps in the verandas, the original, Lucite-faced clock in the lounge, the Lucite arms on the lounge chairs, and the cigarette-proof Formica table tops. Another feature is the circular Herculite glass table in the center of each veranda, with its aluminum base. A highlight in the decoration of the lounge is the photomural airview of lower Manhattan and New York harbor, which unobtrusively adds a third dimension to the long wall opposite the buffet. A detailed description of the furniture and decoration of the various rooms follows:
The walls in the lounge are finished in a pastel blue-green, and the marine veneer ceiling in off-white. From the level of the boat deck above to the ceiling, which is raised above the deck level to add height to the lounge, the port and starboard walls are featured by a glass brick installation three bricks high. This up-to-date architectural detail, the first of its kind in an exterior marine bulkhead, provides ample daylight to this room. The floor covering is of Goodyear rubber, in a slightly marbleized neutral shade. Separating the lounge from the verandas on each side are Herculite heat-treated clear glass screens, with frameless Herculite doors. Set in the center of these screens, on both the lounge and veranda sides, are ano-dized aluminum flower troughs, adding a novel touch of color and concealing indirect lighting units for each end of the room. A similar flower trough is located under the mural. The drapes which run from deck to deck have a spiral leaf design on a beige background. All curtains and drapes were furnished by W. & J. Sloane. Lending depth to the long forward wall of the lounge is the large sepia-toned photomural. On the opposite wall, above the buffet, is a large flesh-tinted mirror, supplied by Semon, Bache & Company. On the buffet, which is finished in dubonnet baked enamel is a clock of modern, original design, with an edge-lighted Lucite face and Seth Thomas Navy movement. The pedestal tables in the lounge are of a new rectangular design, aluminum finished, with cigarette-proof Formica tops. The chairs, with black anodized aluminum frames, have Lucite arms and are upholstered in clay beige leather. The buffet was supplied by the Simmons Company; the chairs and tables by the General Fire-proofing Company. A completely equipped, portable bar cart, of the latest design, may be wheeled into any of the accommodations for the convenience of passengers. All necessary equipment for the showing of motion pictures to the passengers or crew is available. Four features, supplied by the Seven Seas Film Company, are carried on each voyage.
The two verandas, with four large windows looking out to sea, are furnished to provide comfortable, homey recreation spaces for games, reading, music and general relaxation. The walls, finished in pastel blue-green, provide an eye-soothing background to these pleasant quarters. Drapes, in a summery, casual leaf pattern of blue-green and dubonnet on a natural background, can be drawn across the entire outboard wall, closing the veranda from the strong tropical sun and making a perfect backdrop for an afternoon siesta. The rubber flooring, in a neutral tone, is partially covered by an irregular-shaped blue-green rug of tweed material, with rubber padding. All rugs were supplied by Karaghuesian. Modern, barrel-type club chairs, with foam rubber cushioning and upholstered with homespun dusty rose and nubby beige materials, are grouped around a pedestal-type table with a circular Herculite glass top, surmounted by a lamp with Lucite base and fabric shade. Love seats in the two outboard corners are similar in design and finish to the chairs. The chairs and love seats for the verandas were supplied by W. & J. Sloane. In the port veranda a short wave radio with automatic record player, of Pilot manufacture, is finished in natural wheat, with Tufraw leather-covered doors. Similarly located in the starboard veranda is a bookcase of break-front design, the lower section covered with Tufraw leather and hand embossed with red striping. The upper portion has mirrored doors of heat-treated glass embellished with Lucite rings.
As in the other passenger accommodations, the design, furnishing and decoration of the staterooms is given the modern, comfortable touch. The color schemes are pastel-like in feeling, creating an atmosphere conducive to complete relaxation. The outboard double passenger staterooms have walls ot pastel blue-green, ceilings of off-white, and a darker shade of blue-green carpeting. The wall at the head end ot the beds, which projects into the room to accommodate the bathroom behind, is made to recede through the application of a modern wall-paper design with a liight-figured wine background. The drapes, which match the bedspread, are a dusty rose with a darker fringe. The beds, which are all-metal, are equipped with Beautyrest" mattresses and springs. Both were supplied, along with the vanity, highboy, and other case furniture, by the Simmons Company. The small barrel-type lounging chair and the vanity bench are rubber cushioned and upholstered in a dusty pink basket weave material. The double pedestal vanity has a full-length mirror with a curved, heat-treated glass shelf and Lumiline side fixtures complete with adjustable shields. The highboy has an aluminum-framed mirror over which is a horizontal Lumiline fixture. The inboard single passenger staterooms are similarlv equipped in a color scheme of pale yellow walls, grey case furniture and pastel blue upholstery, with curtains and bedspreads in a subtle yellow-greyplaid. Heat-treated sliding glass windows in one corner of these rooms look through the veranda out to sea, giving the effect of an outside room. These windows are draped in the same material as the veranda windows. The bathrooms are in white with a two-toned grey and white non-skid tile floor, and are equipped with Crane "Criterion" style fixtures in satin finish chrome plate. All rooms are equipped with quiet, oscillating electric fans, painted the same color as the walls. Push buttons for steward service are conveniently located throughout.
Officers and Crew's Staterooms
The officers' stateroom walls and furniture are finished in two tones of gray and the ceilings in pale yellow. In addition to the furniture normally provided to these accommodations, which, incidentally, meets the most modern standards of style and comfort, there is provided a reclining chair, complete with ottoman, rubber upholstered in blue corduroy. The cushion of the ottoman is removable, leaving a useful coffee table with a linen finish Formica top. All crew's staterooms are equipped with settees and radios. Each berth has an individual adjustable light. A number of private showers are provided for the crew, fitted with beat-treated glass doors supplied bv Lehman Incorporated.
The walls and furniture of the spacious officers' mess, which seats twenty persons, are finished in two tones of grey, and the ceiling in pale vellow. The floor covering is a neutral shade of Goodyear rubber. The table tops are of light yellow Formica and the chairs of satin finished aluminum. These portable aluminum chairs are rubber upholstered in pastel blue Naugahyde and the transom seats in dubonnet Naugahvde. The curtain design is a yellow and grey plaid, two bookcases are included in the furnishings.
Crews and Petty Officers' Mess
The crew's and petty officers' messrooms, seating fourteen and six, respectively, are finished in two tones of brown. The table tops are in linen finish Formica and the aluminum chairs are rubber upholstered in pastel blue. Bookcases are also provided for these rooms.
Boat Deck Furniture
Sheltered under the navigating bridge is modern summer furniture trimmed and upholstered in light rust and Cerulean blue. A chaise lounge in the same style is provided for the moonlit comfort of the romance-minded. Deck games include deck tennis, shuffleboard, trap shooting and quoits. A portable swimming pool is also included.
The steering gear of the Robin Locks-ley, supplied by the Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company, is of the electro-hydraulic type with a single -thwartship ram operating a double tiller. The ram works in two opposed cylinders connected by piping to two independent similar variable-stroke pumps, each connected to an electric motor. Quick change valves operated from one common control are installed to effect hydraulic transfer from one pumping unit to the other, to bypass oil between the ram cylinders when steering by relieving tackle, and to block the rams hydraulically when desired. A mechanical friction brake is fitted on the rudder extension. The steering gear control is operated by a hydraulic teJemotor connected to the steering stand in the wheel house, by the Sperry gyro-pilot, or by a trick wheel in the steering gear compartment. An aft steering stand is provided on top of the small house on the poop and connected to the trick wheel by shafting. The steering gear is designed to move the rudder from 35 degrees hard over to 35 degrees hard over in 30 seconds, with the vessel running ahead at full speed. A tiller is fitted to the rudder stock extension for emergency steering by means of tackle operated by the capstan machinery.
Anchors, Chain, Windlass and Capstans
The vessel is equipped with four stockless anchors supplied by the Baldt Anchor, Chain & Forge Corporation. There are two 10,045-pound bower anchors, one 8540-pound spare anchor, and one 3605-pound stream anchor. The anchor chain is 2 3/16-inch Naco stud link cast-steel chain furnished in two 150-fathom lengths. The vessel is equipped with 105 fathoms of l 1/2-inch steel wire rope on a reel mounted on the poop deck for a stream line, and 130 fathoms of l 13/16-inch steel wire rope on a reel mounted on the forecastle for a tow line. The anchor windlass was supplied by Lidgerwood and consists of two cast-steel wildcats, driven through spur gearing by one electric motor, the whole mounted horizontally on a common bedplate, and located on the forecastle deck. Two warping heads are provided. Two electrically driven reversible capstans located on the poop with motors and gearing below deck were also supplied by Lidgerwood.
Windows, Ports and Doors
All windows and airports opening on the exterior of the ship are of brass or bronze. All openings are screened. Airports of 14 inches diameter are fitted throughout the ship except in the storerooms below the poop, the fan room and the stack, where 12-inch airports are fitted. Windows are fitted in the wheel house and verandas. All airports were manufactured by Torrey Roller Bushing Works, Bath, Me. The window equipment furnished by Kearfott Engineering Company, New York, includes pilot-house windows, windows protecting the boat deck and windows in the verandas. The "Klearvu" windows in the pilot house have a sash arrangement which allows for a vision slot of adjustable width at any point within the normal eye level. Hand-operated cams at the side of each window are the means of weathering the movable sash against a rubber gasket, making the window watertight. On the forward end of the boat deck, bronze jump sash windows are installed to protect the deck space occupied by the passengers' deck chairs. The verandas on either side of the main cabin are fitted with Kearfott guard plate windows. These windows are mechanically operated and are of the sliding type. Heat-treated glass is used, and in heavy weather additional protection to the verandas is provided by a bronze guard plate which covers the outside of the entire window. These guard plates are operated by a crank located on the inboard side of the windows. All interior doors throughout the quarters were furnished by Hopeman Brothers and are of the hollow metal type. The exterior wood doors on the boat and bridge deck are by the same manufacturer. Steel plate doors in the machinery spaces, cargo spaces, etc., were manufactured by the shipbuilder.
Very complete navigating equipment is installed. The spacious wheel house is located at the forward end of the bridge deck with an open bridge to port and starboard. The chart room is aft of the wheel house on the port side, and a spare room for the pilot is on the starboard side. The wheel house contains, besides the steering stand, the control stand for the Sperry two-unit type gyro-pilot system, rudder-angle indicator, radio direction finder, running light panel, engine order telegraph, and revolution indicator. A Sperry course recorder and a Submarine Signal Company's fathometer are located in the chart room. The bridge wings contain repeater stands for the gyro-compass system, and engine order telegraphs to port and starboard. A complete gyro-compass system furnished by the Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., is installed. The gyrocompass is installed in the gyro-compass room on the boat deck with repeaters in the wheel house, on each bridge wing and in the radio direction finder cabinet. Magnetic compasses and binnacles for the ship were furnished by Kelvin-White with binnacles in the wheel house and at the after steering station. The standard compass is located on the wheel house top. An 18-inch incandescent pilot-house searchlight was furnished by Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc. The sound power telephone system has six stations, including the wheel house, engine room, chief engineer's room, steering gear room, emergency steering station, and radio room. This system was furnished by the Henschel Corporation, of Amesbury, Mass., which also furnished the engine order telegraphs, revolution indicator and the running light panel. The Typhon whistle is a No. 300 model furnished by the Leslie Company, Lyndhurst, N. J., which also furnished complete automatic whistle controls. A complete ship's radio communication system, supplied by the Mackay Radio & Telegraph Company, is installed.
The cargo handling arrangements are very complete, and are designed to allow the rapid loading and discharge of various kinds of freight. Cargo from the five hatchways is discharged by means of sixteen 5-ton booms, one 10-ton boom, and one 30-ton boom, all mounted on two masts and five king posts. The hoisting equipment consists of twelve single-drum winches and four double-drum winches furnished by the American Hoist and Derrick Company. Each winch is driven by a 45-horsepower watertight enclosed motor. Ten of the single-drum winches have a winch head on the drum shaft while two additional single-drum winches have an additional gear reduction to a shaft carrying the heavy duty winch head used for swinging the 30-ton boom. All drums are driven from the main shaft through a jaw clutch. The single-drum winches have a single line pull of 3200 pounds at 350 feet per minute, and are capable of a single line pull of 6720 pounds at about 220 feet per minute. The light line speed is 700 feet per minute. Two of the double-drum winches are double in line drum single geared winches. Both drums are equipped with jaw clutches for engagement to the main shaft. The lead and speed characteristics are the same as the single-drum winches, with the motor driving one drum only at one time. The two additional double-drum winches have the main drum speed and the same load characteristics as the other winches, but the second or auxiliary drum is driven through a jaw clutch and a second gear reduction. The line pull of the second or auxiliary drum is 11,000 pounds. Resistor rooms containing the main control equipment for the winches are located on the shelter deck just below each group of winches. The winches are operated through pedestal controllers overlooking the hatches. Blocks for the cargo gear were supplied by W. H. MacMillan Sons.
The Robin Locksley has a total refrigerated cargo space of 11,530 cubic feet divided into four compartments of approximately equal size located two to port and two to starboard on the second deck. Refrigerated spaces for the ship's stores are located at the center of the ship between the refrigerated cargo spaces. These stores spaces consist of a vegetable room of 1810 cubic feet, a meat room of 2660 cubic feet and a thaw room of 170 cubic feet. Insulation is generally 12 inches thick on the walls and 9 inches thick on the decks; it is of cork on the deck and of rock wool elsewhere. All insulation is sheathed with T & G supported by wood bearers. The walls are finished with 3/8-inch mastic applied over expanded metal. The floors have lead pans carried up 12 inches on the walls and finished with 1 1/2 inches of Levelite applied over expanded metal. All refrigerator and cold storage doors were furnished by Hopeman Brothers, Inc. All refrigeration for the ship is supplied by seven duplicate machines located on the upper flat in the machinery space. Freon is used as the refrigerant and is expanded directly in the cooling units. Four of these machines cool the refrigerated cargo spaces and two cool the ship's refrigerated stores spaces and also provide 150 pounds of ice each day from an ice making unit. An additional machine is installed as a spare unit for the cargo spaces. Each machine is driven by a 7 1/2-horsepower Westinghouse motor. All refrigerating equipment was furnished by the Carrier Corporation. The cargo compartments are designed for low temperature with a regulated range from 5 degrees to 50 degrees F. Cooling for the two after compartments is accomplished by means of ceiling and side-wall cooling coils with fans for recirculating the air. The two forward cargo compartments are cooled by Carrier self-contained cold diflusers. The ship's meat room and chill room are cooled by means of side-wall coils, and the vegetable room by two Carrier self-contained cold diffusers.
The bathing facilities of the Robin Locks-ley provide a total of five baths and eighteen showers with an additional shower connected with the hospital. All passenger rooms, as well as the captain's and chief engineer's quarters, connect with a private bath or shower. Wash basins are installed in all other rooms. All baths, showers and wash basins throughout are supplied with hot and cold fresh water, while water closets are flushed with cold salt water from the ship's sanitary system. All plumbing fixtures were supplied by the Crane Company.
The Robin Locksley, while offering a less serious problem of fire prevention and extinction than large passenger vessels, nevertheless has had careful attention given to these matters. The vessel has been built and equipped to comply fully with all regulations of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, as well as the recommendations of Senate Report No. 184.
The general construction of the vessel is steel throughout. The interior bulkheads are of structural steel, with the exception of the bulkheading in the passengers' quarters, which is constructed of steel-faced panels with an incombustible core. All bulkheads in the quarters are made intact from deck to deck to prevent draft and the spread of fire through adjacent spaces. All stairways are enclosed by steel bulkheads. The furniture and furnishings are of incombustible materials with the exception of the upholstery, bedding carpets and some of the portable furniture in the passenger accommodations. Generally, with the exception of battens in the cargo spaces, insulated walls and gratings in the refrigerated spaces, wood shelves in the linen rooms, wood weather decks on the superstructure and a few exterior wood doors in the superstructure, combustible materials have been eliminated from the construction of the vessel.
Fire Detection and Extinction
A complete system of watchmen's key stations defining the route of a regular patrol is installed throughout the accommodations and storerooms midship and aft. For calling the crew and passengers, in case of an emergency, a manually controlled general alarm system is installed, with gongs located at various points throughout the quarters and on the second deck. The general alarm control and master controls for ventilating fans are located in the wheel house. On each deck, within the stairway enclosures, there are fire stations containing hydrants, 75-foot lengths of hose, portable fire extinguishers and fire axes. The usual hose stations, with 50-foot lengths of hose, are located on the open decks. Three pumps are available for fire-fighting purposes, giving a total capacity of 1050 gallons per minute. A complete C02 extinguishing system protects the cargo holds and machinery spaces, as well as the paint room aft. This system was furnished by Walter Kidde & Company, Inc. A small separate C02 system protects the emergency generator room. The fuel-oil tanks are fitted with a steam-smothering system.
Two 28-foot lifeboats, of 60-person capacity each, were furnished by the Landlev Company, which also furnished the Steward davits and Steward boat chocks. Two hand-operated boat winches are provided. In addition to the lifeboats there is a 20-person Balsa float manufactured by the Atlantic and Pacific Manufacturing Corporation. Life preservers were furnished by the Sculler Safety Corporation.
The galley and pantries are finished and equipped to conform to the highest standards in marine practice. All equipment is electric with the exception of steam tables, hot presses and coffee urns. The dressers, sinks, steam tables and exposed shelves are of stainless steel. All dresser bases are set back from the fronts, and the tile floor is carried to the base and coved up to form a recessed toe space. The galley is arranged with a serving section consisting of a steam table and serving shelf between the main pantry and the galley, with a tray shelf on the pantry side which allows the waiters to load up their trays in the pantry without entering the galley. Ample stowage of dishes is provided at the serving location. Heated dishes are stowed in the hot press below the steam table, the hot press being fitted with sliding doors both on the galley and pantry side. Additional stowage of dishes is provided in adjacent dressers, dish closet and dish rack. Two 36-inch Edison electric ranges, complete with ovens and back shelves are installed. No separate bake ovens are provided, as the capacity of the range ovens is ample to take care of the baking and roasting operations necessary for the limited company on board ship. The galley is also provided with a Hobart 20-quart mixer, a Hobart potato peeler of 15 pounds capacity, a steam-heated proving oven, stainless steel dough trough, a large sink, and the necessary dressers and work table. The stainless steel sinks are fitted with a special pop-up waste, with an operating handle near one corner of each sink on the dresser top. Edison electric egg boilers and Toastmaster electric toasters are located on the dresser near the serving section. A 34 cubic-foot four-door refrigerator with remote compressor is located at the after end of the galley adjacent to the dumbwaiter. The main pantry facing the galley is equipped with a Hobart SM3 dishwasher together with the necessary dish dressers. Large cupboards with sliding doors stow various items of silver, glass, china, etc. Dish dressers are provided with shelves below for creels and standard wire trays. The method for handling china, glass and silver has been very carefully worked out. All china, with the exception of cups, is stowed in portable creels made of heavy tinned steel rod, with a carrying handle across the top. These creels are single stack for the larger items and double stack for the smaller items, and are all fitted with the same sized square base. Guides to suit the standard base are fitted at all locations throughout the service spaces where dishes are handled, either in dressers and hot presses, or on top of dressers, or in dish racks. Hinged frames or creel holders are fitted on dressers in the galley, and in the cabin deck pantry, for securing creels on the dressers during meals. These may be hinged up against the bulkhead, out of the way, when the creels are removed after serving and the dressers are needed for other purposes. Complete interchangeability of all creels at all locations is effected by use of the standard base. These creels are always held securely against any movement caused by rolling of the ship. The portable creels permit complete stacks of dishes to be carried to the various locations where they are needed, with a minimum of breakage and handling. A set of empty creels to suit various sizes of dishes are stowed on shelves below the clean dish dresser ready for loading when dishwashing operations start. All cups and hollow glassware, except that used in the bar, are stowed in standard wire trays, of suitable size for the dishwashing machine, so that these items may be washed in their regular stowage trays. Proper provision is made for stowing these trays at the various locations where they are needed. The officers' pantry and crew's pantry are each fitted with a dresser, sink, cupboard, combination hot water and coffee urn, and a General Electric electric refrigerator. The pantry on the cabin deck is completely equipped not only for serving the passengers but for taking care of any banquets or parties that may be held on the ship. The equipment consists of a steam table with hot press below, the necessary dressers, sink, and cupboards, electric griddle, electric egg boiler, toaster, and combination urn. An 8 cubic-foot General Electric electric refrigerator is also provided. A completely equipped service bar is located in the stock room adjoining the pantry and lounge, fitted with sink, refrigerator and ice trays. A glass rack for stowage of bar glassware is located above the bar, with roomy storage lockers for bottle and case goods located on either side.
The Robin Locksley is fitted with a single-duct ventilating and heating system. All passengers' and crew's accommodations, public spaces, work spaces and storerooms, and the machinery space are ventilated by mechanical means. In addition, all cargo holds are equipped with the Cargocaire system of humidity control. All fans were supplied by the Ilg Electrical Ventilating Company.
Accommodations, Galley and Pantries
To provide satisfactory ventilation in the passengers' and crew's accommodations and the galley and pantries, it was arranged that there should be both a supply and an exhaust system, with the exhaust 75 percent of the capacity of the supply so as to prevent the outside high-temperature air entering the accommodations during the summer season, and to prevent the low-temperature air entering the accommodations during the winter season. There is a change of air every 4 1/2 minutes in the accommodation spaces, and a change of air every 5 minutes in the officers' and crew's spaces. The ventilating of the passengers' and crew's accommodations is divided into two systems, each system being provided with one supply and one exhaust fan. Each supply fan is rated at 6000 cubic feet per minute, and each exhaust fan at 4800 cubic feet per minute. The ventilation of the serving pantry on the cabin deck and the galley and pantry on the shelter deck provides a change of supply air every 3 minutes and a change of exhaust air every 2 minutes. With this rate of change, odors from the galley and pantries are prevented from filtering through the ship, as there is always a minus pressure in these spaces. Ventilating of the galley and pantries is unusually comprehensive, exhaust outlets for general ventilation being located at the outboard side of each room, with other exhaust outlets located above the coffee urns and steam serving tables and in the range hood. Fresh air is supplied through ducts located in the center of the galley at the working spaces. Each supply duct has two 3/8-inch by 8-foot long slots, providing a curtain of fresh air along the working spaces at all times. The exhaust fan for the galley and pantries is rated at 4800 cubic feet per minute. The supply fan is rated at 2500 cubic feet per minute with an Aerofin non-freeze heating coil installed on the inlet side so as to maintain a temperature of 50 degrees F. under all weather conditions, thus preventing condensation and sweat of the ducts in these rooms. The fan room, located on the boat deck about midship, is equipped with two 6000 cubic feet per minute supply fans and two 4800 cubic feet per minute exhaust fans, with one supply and one exhaust fan for the accommodation ventilation on the port and starboard sides, and the supply and exhaust fans for galley and pantries in the center of the fan room. The fresh air supply to the fan room is through weatherproof port and starboard intake louvres. Several air filters of the American Air Filter Company's permanent washable type are attached to the inlet side of each supply fan. For the accommodations, galley and pantry, a washing tank is provided in the fan room with hot and cold water supply and waste drain. Heating coils for each supply fan for the accommodations and crew is provided with an Aerofin non-freeze preheater with a capacity of 75 percent of the fan capacity or 4500 cubic feet per minute with a temperature rise of 0 degree F. to 60 degrees F, and an Aerofm flextube reheater of 4500 cubic feet per minute with a temperature rise of 60 degrees F. to 110 degrees final temperature, with steam supplied to each preheater and reheater. The temperature control system for the preheaters and reheater is provided by the Minneapolis-Honeywell Company's pneumatic thermostatic system. This system is supplied with air pressure from the engine-room compressor, and is so arranged that the required temperature for the heating of the accommodations and crew's quarters during the daytime is maintained at 70 degrees F. in each room and adjusted at night to maintain 60 degrees F. The return from each heater is connected to a high-pressure thermostatic return trap to remove all condensation from each heater, and is discharged into a common return main which is connected to the second-stage heater. Vertical single supply and exhaust trunks run from the fan room to the various spaces for the ventilating and heating of the passengers' and crew's accommodation spaces, with outlet registers located at the bulkheads. All registers are furnished by the Tuttle and Bailey Company. Exhaust ducts lead from each bathroom and passageway to the vertical trunks with grills in each space, louvres being provided at the bottom of the door of all bathrooms and officers' and crew's rooms to complete the path of circulation. With this arrangement, a continuous supply of air throughout the ship is provided at all times.
The machinery space is provided with an unusually comprehensive ventilating system by three 13,000 cubic feet per minute Ilg Electrical Ventilating Company fans located in the engine and boiler room, furnishing 36,000 cubic feet per minute ventilating air to the space as well as 2000 cubic feet per minute to the Cargocaire equipment and 1000 cubic feet per minute to the refrigerated cargo storage spaces. The ventilating of the engine room is unusual in that there are a total of 25 supply outlets throughout the engine, machine and boiler room spaces, with each outlet located so as to provide an ample supply of fresh air to the operating crew at all times. Another unusual feature, provided at the main switchboard, is a large supply duct 17 feet 6 inches long by 26 inches wide, with three 3/8-inch slots the full length of this duct, providing a curtain of air along the front of the switchboard at 2500 cubic feet per minute. The back of the board is provided with 500 cubic feet per minute. At the operating platform are three large outlets with a total of 5000 cubic feet per minute, and, at the after part of this platform, two outlets of 1500 cubic feet per minute each. At the main generators there are three outlets supplying a total of 4000 cubic feet per minute, with the balance of the outlets so located as to provide an ample supply of fresh air where required at all times. The fresh air for the forward supply fan is taken from the plenum chamber of the main fan room on the boat deck; the fresh air to the two after supply fans is from the bridge deck, aft of the stack. Air is exhausted naturally from the top of the engine hatch, so as to remove all heated air under the cabin deck, and from the engine and machinery spaces through the top of the stack. From the foregoing, it is apparent that the rate of change is 1.4 per minute for 49,425 cubic feet of net volume of air. Another feature is the design of the top of the stack. The after part of the stack is 2 feet 4 inches below the forward center part, with a seal plate pitched to drain. At the center is an opening 19 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 2 inches high for the natural exhaust from the engine and machinery spaces. At the after part are exhaust mushrooms from the accommodation fans, galley exhaust fan, emergency generator exhaust fan and battery exhaust fan, as well as natural exhaust from the engine hatch. With this arrangement of the top of the stack, an easy exit of the exhaust from the machinery and engine spaces is provided, as well as a pressure exhaust at the after part of the stack from the large mechanical mushroom header, which prevents smoke finding its way to the after part of the boat deck and prevents rain from getting into the uptake.
The holds of the vessel are provided with an unusual ventilating system. All cargo spaces, except the refrigerated cargo storage spaces and ship stores, are provided with Cargocaire ventilation furnished by the Cargocaire Engineering Corporation, 15 Park Row, New York. Two thousand cubic feet per minute is supplied from the forward engine-room supply fan to the Cargocaire room, and is drawn through sea-water cooling coils and dried by passing through beds of silica gel. The treated air is then distributed to the various holds. At certain intervals, depending upon the humidity of the atmospheric air, the silica gel becomes loaded with moisture and must be activated for further service. This is quickly accomplished by blowing heated air, furnished by heating coils, through the absorber beds to dry out the silica gel. To maintain a continuous flow of treated air to the holds, duplicate absorbent beds are installed and interconnected with four-way valves; thus, while one bed is drying air, the other is being activated. This de-humidifying unit has a capacity of 2000 cubic feet per minute and is located just forward of the boiler room at the operating platform level, with a 12-inch supply pipe extending under the shelter deck to each hold supply fan. Each hold has its own individual supply and exhaust system. The ventilating and recirculating system of the cargo holds is arranged for either (1) ventilating with outside air or (2) vigorously recirculating the inside air, each hold being an independent unit in this respect. Dry air from the Cargocaire unit is mixed with the recirculating streams to displace the moist air in the holds. This system reduces the dewpoint of air in the ship's holds by de-humidification to a point at which ship sweat and cargo sweat cannot occur. The installation consists of duplicate duct systems, one supply and one exhaust, on the forward and after bulkheads of each hold. Each has a single mushroom ventilator above a deck house, dampers, an axial-flow fan, a downcomer from the fan, and thwart-ship ducts at the top of each compartment to lead the air past the heavy girders, which would otherwise stop the air flow when the cargo is tightly stowed. The Cargocaire system provides positive and thorough recirculation of air in each hold, independent of weather conditions and with or without the addition of dry air. It also provides ventilation with outside air alone, when it is dry enough, and with outside air mixed with treated air. Due to the fact that dry, fresh air is continuously injected into the recirculating air stream, the same amount of air is displaced from the holds, carrying with it excessive moisture, odors and gases. In this manner, the freshness of the air in the holds and the dewpoint can be controlled without interference from wind, weather or atmospheric conditions. The condition of the air in each individual hold is at all times accurately known by the ship's personnel from continuous seven-day records. A recorder cabinet is located in a deck house at the exhaust end of each hold. It is connected by sampling tubes to each deck level. A similar cabinet in the chart house records conditions of the atmosphere surrounding the ship. By referring this information to a Cargocaire dewpoint chart, the officer in charge of conditioning the cargo can judge the required operation of the Cargocaire equipment and act accordingly. The forward stores and lockers, after steering gear and general stores have natural supply and exhaust.
All of the ventilating units with the connected blowers, with the exception of exhaust from the resistor houses, are Ilg direct-connected blowers with drip-proof motors. Of these, practically all are Ilg marine type blowers with Navy type inlet and discharge connections. A unique feature of this blower is that the backwardly curved blade, non-overloading type wheels are of duraluminum and are mounted directly on the motor shafts. Constructing the wheels of duraluminum of the gage used gives a wheel of great strength and light weight, reducing bearing wear. The Ilg custombuih motors project slightly into the side of the casing with the result that a short rugged shaft can be used, preventing whip. This, coupled with the fact that the motors are specially designed for fan duty, and provided with S. K. F. grease-lubricated ball bearings, gives a motor and ventilating set that will assure uninterrupted service, and a unit so constructed that it makes no difference whether the motor axis is athwartship or fore and aft. Due to the heavy cast-iron sides used in the construction of Ilg marine type blowers, the direct-connected motors are carried in a special spider bolted directly to the blower sides, eliminating the use of sub-base and flexible couplings, which results in a saving of deck space, overall weight, and assures permanent alinement between the electric motor and the fan wheel. The fan housings of the blowers are so constructed that the wheels can be removed from either the inlet or the drive side without disturbing the fan casing. This feature reduces maintenance costs and permits quick repair should any foreign substance be drawn into the wheel causing damage to the wheel blading. The exhaust fans for the resistor houses are provided with a special three-bladed wheel rotating against the top of the blade. These wheels are also constructed of duraluminum, and have semi-non-overloading characteristics. All fans except those for the machinery space are provided with a master control at the fire control station which can be used to shut down the fans in case of fire. The fans are mounted on special foundations and run at low speed to insure silent operation.
The Bethlehem main propulsion unit for the Seas Shipping Company ships consists of one set of cross-compound double-reduction geared turbines. The normal rating is 6300 shaft horsepower at 85 revolutions per minute when operating with steam at 450 pounds per square inch gage pressure, 740 degrees F. total temperature at 28.5 inches vacuum. The unit includes a combined impulse-reaction high-pressure turbine in series with an all-reaction low-pressure turbine, each turbine driving its own high-speed pinion through flexible couplings. A two-stage impulse astern turbine is mounted in the exhaust end of the low-pressure turbine casing. The reduction gear has two high-speed pinions and gears, the high-speed gear driving its low-speed pinion through a quill shaft and flexible coupling, and the two low-speed pinions driving the main gear. A motor-driven turning gear, capable of being declutched, is fitted to turn the main unit and shafting slowly in either direction. This is driven by a 7 1/2 horsepower General Electric motor. The forward end of each turbine rests on a support that is flexible in the fore and aft direction to allow for axial expansion of the turbine casing, but is rigid athwartships and vertically to preserve alinement. The after end of each turbine is rigidly bolted to the gear casing. The condenser weight is taken by two fore and aft beams composing the sides of the low-pressure exhaust casing. The forward ends of these beams rest on a strong athwartship structural member forming the forward turbine foundations. The after ends of the beams are bolted to the gear casing.
The high-pressure turbine has one stage of impulse blading with two moving rows, followed by a series of expansions of reaction blading, and turns at 5500 revolutions per minute at the rated power. The casing is of cast steel rigidly constructed to avoid distortion. The impulse wheel nozzle box is integral with the casing.
Openings for steam extraction are provided in the high-pressure casing at the entrance to the third reaction expansion, and at the high-pressure turbine exhaust. Both bleeders supply steam for feed heating purposes. The third reaction expansion bleeder also furnishes steam to the ship's evaporator and steam heating systems. Bleeder valves on the turbine are of the stop check type to prevent inflow of steam to the turbine when the main unit is stopped.
The ahead low-pressure turbine is of the single flow conical rotor type, having reaction blading, and running at 2700 revolutions per minute at the rated power. A bleeder connection is provided on the low-pressure turbine to supply steam to the first-stage heater. An emergency steam connection is also provided in case of failure of the high-pressure turbine.
An impulse astern turbine is incorporated in the low-pressure casing. The astern casing is of cast steel. It is bolted to and supported within the low-pressure exhaust casing in such a way as to avoid any undue distortion due to temperature.
The gland packing is of the labyrinth type with radial clearances. The gland strips are brass calked in and machined with thin tips. Two pockets are provided, the inner for sealing steam, the outer for connection to a gland exhauster system arranged to prevent leakage of any gland vapor into the engine room. At full power the sealing system requires only a small quantity of steam from an external source. When running steadily this make-up steam is furnished from the auxiliary exhaust system through a reducing valve. Under maneuvering conditions, when the make-up sealing steam demand fluctuates, superheated steam is supplied from the main throttle valve. This procedure avoids temperature changes in the glands, since the superheated steam is at nearly the same temperature as the high-April, 1941 pressure gland leakage steam which at full power forms a large part of the steam in the sealing system. The gland leak-off exhauster, driven by a Westinghouse 3/4-horsepower motor, was supplied by the B. F. Sturtevant Company.
The turbine bearing shells are of brass, lined with babbitt, and lubricated through oil grooves located at both horizontal joints. Lubricating oil for the forward bearings is supplied from the thrust bearing housing, the oil grooves being left open at that end and closed in at the after end only. Oil baffles are fitted at the bearing ends adjacent to the glands to prevent oil leakage along the shaft.
A double-claw type flexible coupling is provided to connect the high-pressure turbine rotor and pinion shaft. The low-pressure pinion is driven by two single-claw type couplings, one on the rotor end and the other on the pinion, connected by a quill shaft which passes through the hollow pinion. The couplings are lubricated by oil spilling from the ends of the adjacent turbine and pinion bearings, the coupling claws running submerged in a bath of oil. The ahead and astern throttle valves are of the single disk type with a balancing piston and pilot valve. The ahead valve only is connected to a governor mechanism in order that astern steam will always be instantly available for stopping the shaft in an emergency. A guardian valve is placed between the astern throttle and astern turbine. The throttle valve governor mechanism has three primary functions: (1) it prevents the turbine from overspeeding, but does not stop the unit completely, merely restricting the speed to some assigned upper limit; (2) it shuts down the turbine, if the lubricating-oil pump fails; (3) it shuts down the turbine, if for any reason the pressure in the lubricating-oil feeder line drops below a predetermined level.
Main Reduction Gear
A General Electric gear is provided to reduce the speed between the propulsion turbines and the main shaft, making it possible to use efficient prime movers of high rotary speed and still satisfy the requirements of high propeller efficiency which entails low revolutions per minute at the screw. The high-speed high-pressure pinion is made from a solid steel forging which includes the coupling flange and the turning gear clutch half. The high-speed low-pressure pinion is hollow and is driven by a quill shaft that passes through the center of the pinion and is coupled flexibly to the pinion at its after end. The high-speed pinions are connected to the ends of their respective turbine shafts by floating-type flexible couplings. The after end of the high-speed high-pressure pinion carries the female portion of the turning gear clutch. On the after end of the high-speed low-pressure pinion shaft is a square projection for the application of a wrench for turning the turbine gear unit by hand. The gears and pinions are fully enclosed in a casing designed to provide access to the pinions and bearings without dismantling the entire assembly. The case is of welded steel construction with cast-steel bearing blocks welded securely in place. The after end of the main gear shaft between the flange coupling and the after journal bearing is provided with a spiral gear and pinion for driving the revolution counter. The propeller thrust in both the ahead and the astern directions is absorbed by a Howarth pivoted thrust bearing located at the forward end of the low-speed gear. The thrust bearing is of the six-shoe self-alining equalizing type.
The propeller, supplied by the Cramp Brass & Iron Foundries, is four-bladed of solid manganese bronze, 20 feet in diameter and 21 feet in pitch, and weighs 38,300 pounds. The line and tail shafting of forged heat-treated steel, rough turned, was supplied by Bethlehem Steel Company and was finished and balanced by the shipyard.
The system is a forced-lubrication type. The lubricating oil is drawn from the sump tank under the reduction gear and is pumped through duplex strainers and oil coolers to the bearings. A twin gravity tank is installed in the system at an appropriate height to maintain the proper pressure on the discharge system and to insure a supply of lubricating oil in case of pump failure. There are two forced-lubrication oil pumps. Under normal conditions the electric pump takes care of the propelling unit with a steam pump serving as a stand-by. The electric pump was supplied by the Quimby Pump Company and is a vertical, gear in head, screw pump of 300 gallons per minute capacity at 45 pounds per square inch pressure. It is driven by a 20-horsepower variable-speed Westinghouse motor, ranging from 1065 to 1420 revolutions per minute. By this means the capacity can be cut down while the ship is in port and fewer bearings need lubrication. With the high-speed pump no reduction gearing is required and the vertical equipment saves engine-room space. The stand-by pump was supplied by the Warren Pump Company and is an 8-inch by 10-inch by 24-inch vertical simplex double-acting pump, of 300 gallons per minute capacity at 45 pounds per square inch. Two lubricating-oil coolers are installed. They are of the horizontal single-pass type, with the tubes expanded both ends, and with an expansion joint in the center. Cooling water supplied by the main circulating pumps passes through the tubes. The coolers were built by the Bethlehem Steel Company. Each has a capacity of 300 gallons per hour, cooled from 120 to 105 degrees F. One Sharpies lubricating-oil purifier, with a capacity of 350 gallons per hour, has been installed. A twin lubricating-oil gravity tank is installed in the engine hatch. In addition, there is one storage tank and one reclaiming tank filled with steam heating coils. These are of sufficient capacity to hold all the lubricating oil in the system for purification. A lubricating-oil heater supplied by Bethlehem Steel Company is fitted in conjunction with the centrifuge. An oil separator for bilge and ballast water is located in the engine room. This separator was supplied by the Bethlehem Steel Company and has a capacity of 50 tons of oily water per hour. As the separation is done under pressure it may be operated regardless of the trim of the ship. One gland leak-off collecting unit is installed in connection with the turbine gland sealing system, all the gland leak-off vapor being collected and condensed in a closed system.
The main condenser is vertically divided so that one side may be repaired while the other side is in use and is of the single-pass type with 7005 square feet of cooling surface. It is designed to maintain 28 1/2 inches of vacuum under full power conditions with 75-degree F. circulating water. The condenser shell is of welded steel construction and the entire condenser weight is supported by hanging the shell athwart-ships from the heavy side girders built integral with the lower half of the turbine casing. The tubes are 70-30 cupro nickel and are 3/4 inch outside diameter of 18 B. W. G. thickness. All tubes are secured by expanding the inlet end with ferrules, and packing at the outlet end, supplied by Crane Packing Company. Circulating water can be supplied to the condenser through either a high or low sea suction. While at sea, circulating water for the main condenser is supplied by the main circulating pumps using the low suction. There are two main circulating pumps, the piping so arranged that either or both pumps can be used on either or both sides of the main condenser. These pumps of Warren make are of the vertical single-stage, double-suction, centrifugal type driven by 40-horsepower Westinghouse motors, and each has a capacity of 7500 gallons per minute against a head of 16 feet at about 465 revolutions per minute. Vacuum in the main condenser is maintained by means of an Ingersoll-Rand air ejector, located abreast of the condenser. The ejector has two stages and is connected to a combined inter and after cooler with condensate from the main condensate pump for circulation. There are two 2 1/2-inch vertical single-stage Warren condensate pumps driven by 12-horsepower Westinghouse motors.
The starting platform is ar-ranged to allow maximum care in the handling and moving of the ship. The usual gages, telegraphs, etc., are fitted in convenient positions. In addition to the instruments, there are indicator lights for induced-draft blowers, lubricating-oil pumps, main condensate pumps and the lubricating-oil system. There is a King-Seeley gage which indicates the height of oil in the submersible gravity tanks and sump tanks, also one which indicates the water level in the deaerating feedwater heater. A salinity indicator having six points, supplied by The Control Instrument Company, is mounted alongside of the gage board. Thermometers for the power plant, refrigeration, etc., were supplied by the Taylor Instrument Company.
The steam generating plant consists of two Babcock and Wilcox sectional header, air-cased water-tube boilers. Each boiler is equipped with interdeck superheaters, water-cooled furnaces and horizontal tubular air heaters. Three Babcock and Wilcox burners of the wide range type are fitted to each boiler to burn oil under induced draft. A complete set of Bailey automatic combustion controls is also fitted. Both the steam pressure and combustion economy are automatically maintained by the Bailey control system. The steam pressure is measured by a master steam pressure controller at the top of the panel board. This controller sends an air control pressure to both the Bailey damper control drive and the Bailey oil control valve, located in the oil line to the burners. This control pressure serves to increase or decrease both the fuel and air supply simultaneously in accordance with the load changes. The air supply is controlled by controlling the position of the damper in the intake air duct to the air heater. Combustion economy is maintained continuously by automatically readjusting the air supply to maintain the desired fuel-air ratio to each boiler at all times. This readjustment is accomplished by a Bailey fuel-air ratio controller for each boiler. These controllers are located on the boiler panel immediately under the master steam pressure controller. Air flow is measured by employing the resistance through the air registers as an orifice, and oil flow is measured by using the pressure to the burners as an indication of the quantity of oil being fired. Any necessary readjustments as determined by the ratio controllers are transmitted to the air flow control drives in the form of air loading pressures. which bring about the necessary correction in damper position, to satisfy the desired fuel-air relation. Feedwater flow is regulated to each of the boilers to maintain a constant water level in the drums by Bailey thermo hydraulic feedwater regulators. The two boilers were designed to evaporate at least 54,000 pounds of steam per hour at 450 pounds per square inch gage and about 750 degrees total temperature at the superheater outlet when supplied with feed of 317 degrees F. at normal condition. Each boiler is capable of evaporating 40,000 pounds at maximum condition. Each boiler desuperheater is capable of desuper-heating 16,000 pounds with a residual superheat not exceeding 50 degrees F. The designed boiler efficiency is 87 percent. Each boiler has 4504 square feet of water heating surface (including water walls) and not less than 2721 square feet of air heating surface. From the foregoing heating surfaces it may be noted that the boiler and furnace loadings are relatively low, thus assuring a large margin of evaporative capacity for use in case one is out. To maintain the boiler and superheating surfaces in efficient condition 18 Vulcan soot blowers are installed. A permanent combined indicating pyrometer and CO2 meter supplied by the Brown Instrument Company is installed on the boiler gage board with pipe connections from the instrument to various points on the boiler uptakes and stack. Wager smoke indicators are fitted to each boiler. A Reliance "Eye-Hye" gage fitted on each boiler indicates the water level in the boiler gage glass, readable by firemen on the floor. There is a multiple type liquid-actuated draft gage fitted in the machinery space supplied by the Hays Corporation. The Edwards Company supplied high-pressure stop and screw-down check valves for boiler feed and blow-off service and also overload discharge valves.
Air for combustion is supplied by two motor-driven induced-draft fans furnished by B. F. Sturtevant Company. Each fan has a capacity of 12,800 cubic feet per minute at a temperature of 400 degrees F. and a gas velocity of about 100 feet per second at normal operation; the maximum capacity of each fan will be 14,100 cubic feet per minute.
The boiler feed system is of special interest. It is designed to keep the water entering the boilers as free from air as possible and, as installed, is a closed system. Condensate is withdrawn from the bottom of the condensate pump and is discharged as circulating water through the air ejector to the first-stage heater, then to the deaerating heater from which the feed pumps take their suction. The feed pumps discharge through the third-stage heater and the capacity of each pump is sufficient to supply both boilers. The first-stage feedwater heater, of Bethlehem make, is of the horizontal, straight-tube, five-pass type with 150 square feet of heating surface, and a capacity of 54,000 pounds of feedwater per hour from 90 to 171 degrees F. when the turbine bleeder steam is at 7 1/2 pounds absolute. The deaerating heater of Worthington make has a capacity of 54,000 pounds of feedwater per hour from 171 to 239 degrees F. when supplied with turbine bleeder steam at 10 pounds gage pressure. The third-stage feedwater heater at Bethlehem make is of the vertical straight-tube, four-pass type, having a capacity of 54,000 pounds of feedwater per hour from 239 to 314 degrees F. when supplied with bleeder steam at 100 pounds gage pressure. A Belfield drainer unit is installed on the third-stage feed heater.
One main and one auxiliary feed pump were furnished by Warren and are driven by Elliott turbines. These pumps are of the four-stage centrifugal type and each has a capacity of 150 gallons per minute at 585 pounds discharge pressure. The port feed pump, 10 inches by 7 inches by 24 inches, of the vertical simplex reciprocating type, was also supplied by Warren. It has a capacity of 100 gallons per minute at 585 pounds discharge pressure.
There is one make-up feed evaporator of the Davis Paracoil vertical high-pressure type, having a capacity of 11.8 tons per 24 hours, with steam supplied at 10 pounds gage pressure. There is also one salt-water evaporator of the Davis Paracoil vertical high-pressure type, with a capacity of 30 tons per 24 hours, with steam at 85 pounds gage pressure. Both the makeup feed and salt-water evaporators are capable of evaporating either fresh or salt water. In conjunction with the evaporators there is a Davis Paracoil vertical distiller with a capacity of 22 tons per 24 hours. The system also includes a twin distiller test tank, which drains to the fresh-water filling main. The evaporators are equipped with improved automatic feed and drain regulators. A contaminated water evaporator of the horizontal submerged U-tube type supplied by Davis Engineering Corporation has a capacity of 12.8 tons per 24 hours continuous operation, at 100 pounds gage pressure with steam at 250 pounds. Steam from this evaporator goes to the fuel-oil heaters, fuel-oil heating coils, lubricating-oil heaters, etc. In conjunction with the above evaporator there is an inspection tank, and a 4 1/2-inch by 2 3/4-inch by 4-inch Warren horizontal duplex contaminated water evaporator feed pump having a capacity of 10 gallons per minute at 125 pounds discharge pressure.
A deck flat carries the turbo-generators, motor generators and switchboard, as well as the main air ejectors, contaminated water evaporator and evaporator feed pump. The lower level has the usual auxiliaries as described elsewhere. Power is supplied by two General Electric 300-kilowatt turbo-generator sets exhausting into the main condenser when at sea and into the auxiliary condenser when in port. For the auxiliary condenser there is an air ejector consisting of two-stage ejection mounted on an inter and after cooler similar to those described for the main condenser. This unit was supplied by the Ingersoll-Rand Company. There is one motor-driven, vertical, single-stage, double-suction pump, of 1840 gallons per minute capacity, for circulating water to the dynamo condenser. One motor-driven, horizontal, single-stage, centrifugal pump, of 20 gallons per minute capacity, removes condensate from the dynamo condenser, discharging through the air ejector condenser to the vent condenser on top of the second-stage heater and then to the heater. The pumps were furnished by the Warren Steam Pump Company. The circulating pump is driven by a 9-horse-power Westinghouse motor. The condensate pump is driven by a 3.2-horsepower Westinghouse motor.
There is one motor-driven fire pump supplied by the Warren Steam Pump Company with a Westinghouse motor rated 20/50 horsepower. The pump is of the horizontal centrifugal type and has a capacity of 400 gallons per minute at 125 pounds discharge pressure. There is one 10-inch by 8 1/2-inch by 12-inch horizontal duplex reciprocating fire pump of 400 gallons per minute capacity supplied by the Warren Steam Pump Company. Two fresh washing water pumps of Warren make, each having a capacity of 50 gallons per minute at 115 feet head, are driven by a 3-horsepower Westinghouse motor. One sanitary pump of the centrifugal type, supplied by the Warren Steam Pump Company, has a capacity of 150 gallons a minute at 115 feet head. It is driven by a 7.5-horsepower Westinghouse motor. There are two bilge and and ballast pumps, supplied by the Warren Steam Pump Company, each having a capacity of 460 gallons per minute at 78.5 feet head. The pumps are driven by 7.5/15-horsepower Westinghouse motors. There is also a horizontal reciprocating bilge and ballast pump, 10 inches by 9 1/2 inches by 12 inches, supplied by the Warren Steam Pump Company.
There is one 7-inch by 7-inch by 6 1/4-moh by 5-inch Ingersoll-Rand air compressor. It is a two-stage single-acting, air-cooled, radial design with two low-pressure and one high-pressure cylinders and a fan-cooled intercooler. This compressor has a capacity of 150 cubic feet of free air per minute at 125 pounds per square inch discharge pressure. It is driven by a Westinghouse constant-speed motor of 40 horsepower.
Three fuel-oil heaters, of the triple, sectional G-fin, horizontal marine type, were supplied by the Griscom-Russell Company. The capacity of each unit is 2200 pounds of fuel oil per hour, heated from 90 to 250 degrees F. when supplied with steam at 100 pounds gage pressure. There are two fuel-oil service pumps, of vertical, gear in head, screw type with a capacity of 12 gallons per minute at 300 pounds discharge pressure. These pumps were supplied by the Quimby Company and are driven by Westinghouse variable-speed motors ranging from 575 to 1150 revolutions per minute. One auxiliary stand-by horizontal duplex, steam-driven, fuel-oil service pump of Warren make is also installed. This pump delivers 12 gallons per minute at 300 pounds discharge pressure. There is also one fuel-oil transfer pump, of Quimby manufacture, of the vertical, gear in head, screw type, with a capacity of 225 gallons per minute at 50 pounds discharge pressure. The suction line to the service pumps is fitted with a duplex-type strainer supplied by the Bethlehem Company. In the discharge from these pumps there is a duplex strainer supplied by the Bethlehem Company.
Fuel-Oil Transfer and Filling System
A common suction, or suctions, to each tank leads to a double manifold for drawing either fuel oil or ballast. The oil side of the double manifold is connected to a loop system running through the machinery space. It is arranged so that oil may be transferred from the forward tanks to the after tanks or vice versa; from port to starboard, as required for trimming purposes ; to the settling tanks for boiler service, and overboard. The filling mains run from the filling station port and starboard through a line to the deep tanks. From there the fuel oil goes by gravity into the transfer main to the different manifolds or transfer pump suction. Overflows are provided at the shell for the two deep tanks. These overflows are located below the highest head permitted for these tanks, so that it is impossible to overload any tank on the ship. These tanks are fitted with oil alarms to give warning that the system is filled.
The electrical system is supplied with current from two 300 kilowatt General Electric two-wire compound-wound generators, each driven by a steam turbine through reduction gearing. The generators supply 240-volt direct current for all motor-driven auxiliaries, galley equipment, and the lighting motor-generator sets. Two 38.5-kilowatt 240/120-volt Westinghouse motor-generator sets are installed for furnishing 120-volt direct current to the lighting system. When a main power failure occurs, emergency circuits are supplied with current by a 10-kilowatt 120-volt compound-wound Westinghouse generator driven by a Hill type 2R Diesel engine, which starts automatically and takes over the emergency circuits as soon as it is in operation. The emergency circuits are controlled from the emergency switchboard which is located in the emergency generator room above the bridge deck. The main switchboard, located on the generator flat, provides the necessary control for the main generators, lighting motor generators, and all main circuits and auxiliaries. It is an eleven-section board of the dead front type. The switchboard was manufactured by Westinghouse. Local distribution for lighting is through Westinghouse panels. Adequate lighting has been provided for all parts of the vessel with special attention given to the illumination of the living quarters. Lighting fixtures in the passengers' quarters, officers' quarters, messrooms, etc., are of a decorative type and were furnished by the Dayton Manufacturing Company. Watertight fixtures are installed elsewhere. A complete call bell system is installed with push buttons in the officers' and passengers' rooms, and an annunciator located in the pantry. Current is supplied for this system by an ironclad Exide 24-volt storage battery. Practical, streamlined, short-term courses, in which men are trained within several weeks to do one specific job, are the partial response of the General Electric Company to the increasing demand for skilled and semiskilled labor. In General Electric plants throughout the country, hundreds of young men are learning to run lathes, milling machines, drill presses, and grinders; read blueprints; and perform simple assembly jobs preliminary to taking their places in the national defense industrial program, it was announced recently by G. H. Pfeif in charge of personnel under the vice-president in charge of manufacturing. The short-term courses, though, are not the only way in which General Electric is attempting to meet the labor demands of the national defense program. At all plants, the company is co-operating with the vocational schools of the cities in the conduct of specialized courses. To Schenectady have come older men from the Erie, Pa., and Pittsfield, Mass., works to learn the details of turbine manyfacture in anticipation of the expansion of turbine production facilities. At the same time, the four-year apprentice training program has been continuing in the company's nine major plants. This program was instituted in 1901, and at the present time, 1015 men are in apprentice courses. All of these apprentices are high school graduates and are at least 18 years old. The short-term training for specific jobs had its inception in the Lynn, Mass., works, and was begun at Schenectady in August, 1940. The extent of the program is limited only by the available facilities, Mr. Pfeif said. Thousands of men have applied for training and the problem is one of selection rather than recruiting. Men residing within convenient distance of the various plants are selected, primary consideration being given to their mechanical aptitude or interest. Other factors being equal, preference is given those who have had machine shop experience in industry or in vocational or Federal training schools. Each prospective trainee must be at least 21 years old, must pass the same physical examination given to regular employes, and, in accordance with Federal regulations, must produce evidence of citizenship and a Social Security card. The majority of trainees are assigned to machine tool operations although many are placed on assembly work. The training program may run from three weeks to two months or more according to the progress of the individual and production requirements. A continuous feeding of new men into the system takes place for as one man is advanced another is engaged. As a result of the careful selection, the percentage of trainees failing to show satisfactory progress is surprisingly small, running from 5 to 8 percent, according to personnel officials. The enthusiasm of the men is high because most are of the depression generation and are grateful for the opportunity of remunerative employment. Trainees begin in one of three ways. They may engage in non-productive work under the direction of experienced men; they may engage in productive work under the supervision of expert operators; or they may observe and serve as helpers to experienced men. Each man learns eventually to set up and run one particular machine or to do a specific job. Some courses include training in blueprint reading. In instances where such is not the case, trainees are afforded opportunities to obtain this training through vocational school programs.